/* Ajith - Syntax Higlighter - End ----------------------------------------------- */

1.17.2012

Notification Chains in Linux Kernel - Part 02

Continuation after PART-1.

Check the PART-3

Blocking Notifier chains
A blocking notifier chain runs in the process context. The calls in the notification list could be blocked as it runs in the process context. Notifications that are not highly time critical could use blocking notifier chains.

Linux modules use blocking notifier chains to inform the modules on a change in QOS value or the addition of a new device.
<kernel/notifier.c>

186 int blocking_notifier_chain_register(struct blocking_notifier_head *nh,
187         struct notifier_block *n)
188 {
.
199     down_write(&nh->rwsem);
200     ret = notifier_chain_register(&nh->head, n);
201     up_write(&nh->rwsem);
202     return ret;
203 }
204 EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(blocking_notifier_chain_register)
.
216 int blocking_notifier_chain_unregister(struct blocking_notifier_head *nh,
217         struct notifier_block *n)
218 {
.
229     down_write(&nh->rwsem);
230     ret = notifier_chain_unregister(&nh->head, n);
231     up_write(&nh->rwsem);
232     return ret;
233 }
234 EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(blocking_notifier_chain_unregister);

1.16.2012

Notification Chains in Linux Kernel - Part 01

Linux is a monolithic kernel. Its subsystems or modules help to keep the kernel light by being flexible enough to load and unload at runtime. In most cases, the kernel modules are interconnected to one another. An event captured by a certain module might be of interest to another module.

Typically, communication systems implement request-reply messaging, or polling. In such models, a program that receives a request will have to send the data available since the last transaction. Such methods sometimes require high bandwidth or they waste polling cycles.

To fulfill the need for interaction, Linux uses so called notification chains. These notifier chains work in a Publish-Subscribe model. This model is more effective when compared to polling or the request-reply model.

For each notification chain there is a passive side (the notified) and an active side (the notifier), as in the so-called publish-and-subscribe model:
  • The notified are the subsystems that ask to be notified about the event and that provide a callback function to invoke.
  • The notifier is the subsystem that experiences an event and calls the callback function.
NOTE: All the code samples are taken from Linux 2.6.24 kernel.

struct notifier_block
The elements of the notification chain's list are of type notifier_block:
<include/linux/notifier.h>

 50 struct notifier_block {
 51     int (*notifier_call)
(struct notifier_block *, unsigned long, void *);
 52     struct notifier_block *next;
 53     int priority;
 54 };
  • notifier_call - function to execute. 
  • next - used to link together the elements of the list.
  • priority - the priority of the function. Functions with higher priority are executed first. But in practice, almost all registrations leave the priority out of the notifier_block definition, which means it gets the default value of 0 and execution order ends up depending only on the registration order (i.e., it is a semirandom order).
The notifier_block data structure is a simple linked list of function pointers. The function pointers are registered with ‘functions’ that are to be called when an event occurs. Each module needs to maintain a notifier list. The functions are registered to this notification list. The notification module (publisher) maintains a list head that is used to manage and traverse the notifier block list. The function that subscribes to a module is added to the head of the module’s list by using the register_xxxxxx_notifier API and deletion from the list is done using unregister_xxxxxx_notifier.